1. Java

  • Popularity: Very high
  • Ease of Learning: Moderate to Difficult
  • Use Cases: General Use and Specialty
    • Web applications
    • Mobile
    • Embedded systems

Java is the leading general-purpose application development language and framework. It was introduced in 1991 by Sun Microsystems as a high-level, compiled, memory-managed language.

Java’s syntax is similar to C/C++, with curly braces for closures and semicolons to end statements. Automatic memory management is one of the features that made Java so popular, quickly after its initial release. Before Java was introduced, languages that required manual memory management, such as C and C++, were dominant. Manual memory allocation is tedious and error-prone, so Java was hailed as a major step forward for application developers.